Items where Subject is "B5: Access and facilities for the fire service"

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ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B5: Access and facilities for the fire service

Access and facilities for the fire service
B5.(1)The building shall be designed and constructed so as to provide reasonable facilities to assist fire fighters in the protection of life.
(2)Reasonable provision shall be made within the site of the building to enable fire appliances to gain access to the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

Provisions covering access and facilities for the fire service are to safeguard the health and safety of
people in and around the building. Their extent depends on the size and use of the building. Most
firefighting is carried out within the building. In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B5 is met
by achieving all of the following.
a. External access enabling fire appliances to be used near the building.
b. Access into and within the building for firefighting personnel to both:
i. search for and rescue people
ii. fight fire.
c. Provision for internal fire facilities for firefighters to complete their tasks.
d. Ventilation of heat and smoke from a fire in a basement.
If an alternative approach is taken to providing the means of escape, outside the scope of this
approved document, additional provisions for firefighting access may be required. Where deviating
from the general guidance, it is advisable to seek advice from the fire and rescue service as early as
possible (even if there is no statutory duty to consult).

ADB1 Para:13.1 Provision and design of access routes and hardstandings

For dwellinghouses, access for a pumping appliance should be provided to within 45m of all points inside the dwellinghouse.

ADB1 Para:13.1 Diagram 13.1 Turning facilities

Fire and rescue service vehicles should not have to reverse more than 20m from the end of an access road.
Turning circle, hammerhead or other point at which vehicle can turn
See para 13.4

ADB1 Para:13.1 Table 13.1 Typical fire and rescue service vehicle access route specification

NOTES:
1. Fire appliances are not standardised. The building control body may, in consultation with the local fire and rescue service, use other dimensions.
2. The road base can be designed to 12.5 tonne capacity. Structures such as bridges should have the full 17-tonne capacity. The weight of high reach appliances is distributed over a number of axles, so infrequent use of a route designed to accommodate 12.5 tonnes should not cause damage.

ADB1 Para:13.2 Provision and design of access routes and hardstandings

For flats, either of the following provisions should be made.
a. Provide access for a pumping appliance to within 45m of all points inside each flat of a block, measured along the route of the hose.
b. Provide fire mains in accordance with paragraphs 13.5 and 13.6.

ADB1 Para:13.3 Provision and design of access routes and hardstandings

Access routes and hardstandings should comply with the guidance in Table 13.1.

ADB1 Para:13.4 Provision and design of access routes and hardstandings

Dead-end access routes longer than 20m require turning facilities, as in Diagram 13.1. Turning facilities should comply with the guidance in Table 13.1.

ADB1 Para:13.5 Blocks of flats fitted with fire mains

For buildings fitted with dry fire mains, both of the following apply.
a. Access should be provided for a pumping appliance to within 18m of each fire main inlet connection point. Inlets should be on the face of the building.
b. The fire main inlet connection point should be visible from the parking position of the appliance, and satisfy paragraph 14.10.

ADB1 Para:13.6 Blocks of flats fitted with fire mains

For buildings fitted with wet fire mains, access for a pumping appliance should comply with both of the following.
a. Within 18m, and within sight, of an entrance giving access to the fire main.
b. Within sight of the inlet to replenish the suction tank for the fire main in an emergency.

ADB1 Para:14.1 Introduction

Fire mains are installed for the fire and rescue service to connect hoses for water. They may be either of the following.
a. The ‘dry’ type, which are both of the following.
i. Normally kept empty.
ii. Supplied through a hose from a fire and rescue service pumping appliance.
b. The ‘wet’ type, which are both of the following.
i. Kept full of water.
ii. Supplied by pumps from tanks in the building.
There should be a facility to replenish a wet system from a pumping appliance in an emergency.

ADB1 Para:14.10 Provision of private hydrants

Each fire hydrant should be clearly indicated by a plate, fixed nearby in a conspicuous position, in accordance with BS 3251.

ADB1 Para:14.11 Provision of private hydrants

Guidance on aspects of the provision and siting of private fire hydrants is given in BS 9990.

ADB1 Para:14.12 Alternative supply of water

An alternative source of water should be supplied where any of the following apply.
a. No piped water supply is available.
b. Pressure and flow in the water main are insufficient.
c. An alternative source of supply is proposed.

ADB1 Para:14.13 Alternative supply of water

The alternative source of water supply should be one of the following, subject to consultation with the local fire and rescue service.
a. A charged static water tank with a minimum capacity of 45,000 litres.
b. A spring, river, canal or pond that is capable of fulfilling both of the following conditions.
i. Providing or storing a minimum of 45,000 litres of water at all times.
ii. Providing access, space and a hardstanding for a pumping appliance.
c. Any other water supply that the local fire and rescue service considers appropriate.

ADB1 Para:14.2 Provision of fire mains

Buildings with firefighting shafts should have fire mains provided in both of the following.
a. The firefighting stairs.
b. Where necessary, in protected stairways.
The criteria for providing firefighting shafts and fire mains are given in Section 15.

ADB1 Para:14.3 Provision of fire mains

Buildings without firefighting shafts should be provided with fire mains where fire service vehicle access is not provided in accordance with paragraph 13.2(a). In these cases, the fire mains should be located within the protected stairway enclosure, with a maximum hose distance of 45m from the fire main outlet to the furthest point inside each flat, measured on a route suitable for laying a hose.

ADB1 Para:14.4 Design and construction of fire mains

The outlets from fire mains should be located within the protected stairway enclosure (see Diagram 15.1).

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

ADB1 Para:14.6 Design and construction of fire mains

Buildings with a storey more than 50m above fire service vehicle access level should be provided with wet fire mains. In all other buildings where fire mains are provided, either wet or dry fire mains are suitable.

ADB1 Para:14.7 Design and construction of fire mains

Fire service vehicle access to fire mains should be provided as described in paragraphs 13.5 and 13.6.

ADB1 Para:14.8 Provision of private hydrants

A building requires additional fire hydrants if both of the following apply.
a. It has a compartment with an area of more than 280m2.
b. It is being erected more than 100m from an existing fire hydrant.

ADB1 Para:14.9 Provision of private hydrants

If additional hydrants are required, these should be provided in accordance with the following.
a. For buildings provided with fire mains – within 90m of dry fire main inlets.
b. For buildings not provided with fire mains – hydrants should be both of the following.
i. Within 90m of an entrance to the building.
ii. A maximum of 90m apart.

ADB1 Para:15.1 Diagram 15.1 Components of a firefighting shaft

Minimum fire resistance REI60 from both sides with E30 Sa fire doors
Minimum fire resistance REI 120 from accommodation side and REI60 from inside the shaft with E60 Sa fire doors
NOTES:
1.Outlets from a fire main should be located in the firefighting lobby or, in the case of a shaft serving flats, in the firefighting stairway (see Diagram b).
2.Smoke control should be provided in accordance with BS9999 or, where the firefighting shaft only serves flats, the provisions for smoke control given in paragraph 3.49 may be followed instead.
3.A firefighting lift is required if the building has a floor more than 18m above, or more than 10m below, fire service vehicle access level.
4.This diagram is only to illustrate the basic components and is not meant to represent the only acceptable layout. The firefighting shaft should be constructed generally in accordance with section 6 of BS 9999.
5.For the minimum fire resistance of lift doors see Table C1.
See paras 15.2,15.8 and 15.9

ADB1 Para:15.10 Design and construction of firefighting shafts

All firefighting shafts should have fire mains with outlet connections and valves at every storey.

ADB1 Para:15.11 Design and construction of firefighting shafts

A firefighting lift installation includes all of the following.
a. Lift car.
b. Lift well.
c. Lift machinery space.
d. Lift control system.
e. Lift communications system.
The lift shaft should be constructed in accordance with Section 6 of BS 9999.
Firefighting lift installations should conform to BS EN 81-72 and BS EN 81-20.

ADB1 Para:15.12 Rolling shutters in compartment walls

The fire and rescue service should be able to manually open and close rolling shutters without the use of a ladder.

ADB1 Para:15.2 Provision of firefighting shafts

A building with a storey more than 18m above the fire and rescue service vehicle access level should have one or more firefighting shafts, each containing a firefighting lift (Diagram 15.1). The number and location of firefighting shafts should comply with paragraphs 15.4 to 15.7. Firefighting shafts are not required to serve a basement that is not large or deep enough to need one (see paragraph 15.3 and Diagram 15.2).

ADB1 Para:15.2 Diagram 15.2 Provision of firefighting shafts

Buildings in which firefighting shafts should be provided,
showing which storeys need to be served >18m >10m
a. Any building The upper storeys in any building with a storey more than 18m above fire service vehicle access level
b. Any building The basement storeys in any building with a basement more than 10m below fire service vehicle access level
c. Any building The basement storey(s) in any building with two or more basements each exceeding 900m2
Fire service vehicle access level
Two or more basement storeys each exceeding 900m2
Extent of firefighting Extent of firefighting lift stair
NOTES:
1.Height excludes any top storey(s) consisting exclusively of plant rooms.
2.Firefighting shafts should serve all floors through which they pass.
See para 15.2

ADB1 Para:15.3 Provision of firefighting shafts

A building with basement storeys should have firefighting shafts in accordance with the following.
a. There is a basement more than 10m below the fire and rescue service vehicle access level. The firefighting shafts should contain firefighting lifts.
b. There are two or more basement storeys, each with a minimum area of 900m2. The firefighting shafts do not need to include firefighting lifts.
The building’s height and size determine whether firefighting shafts also serve upper storeys.

ADB1 Para:15.3 Diagram 15.3 Location of firefighting shafts: hose laying distances

NOTES:
1.Hose laying distance should be measured from the fire main outlet along the route suitable for laying hose. If this route is not known, the distance should be taken at two-thirds of the direct distance
2.The fire main outlet should be located according to Section 14.
See para 15.7

ADB1 Para:15.4 Provision of firefighting shafts

Firefighting shafts should serve all storeys through which they pass.

ADB1 Para:15.5 Provision of firefighting shafts

A minimum of two firefighting shafts should be provided to buildings with a storey that has both of the following.
a. A floor area of 900m2 or more.
b. A floor level 18m or more above the fire and rescue service vehicle access level.

ADB1 Para:15.6 Provision of firefighting shafts

Firefighting shafts and protected stairways should be positioned such that every part of each storey more than 18m above the fire and rescue service vehicle access level complies with the maximum distances given in paragraph 15.7. Distances should be measured from the fire main outlet on a route suitable for laying a hose.
NOTE: If the internal layout is not known, the distance should be measured at two-thirds of the direct distance.

ADB1 Para:15.7 Provision of firefighting shafts

In any building, the hose laying distance should meet all of the following conditions.
a. A maximum of 60m from the fire main outlet in a firefighting shaft (see Diagram 15.3).
b. Additionally, where sprinklers have not been provided in accordance with Appendix E, the hose laying distance should be a maximum of 45m from a fire main outlet in a protected stairway (although this does not imply that the protected stairway needs to be designed as a firefighting shaft (see Diagram 15.3)).

ADB1 Para:15.8 Design and construction of firefighting shafts

Firefighting stairs and firefighting lifts should be approached from either of the following.
a. A firefighting lobby.
b. A protected corridor or protected lobby that complies with the following guidance.
i. Means of escape (Section 3).
ii. Compartmentation (Section 7).
Both the stair and lobby of the firefighting shaft should be provided with a means of venting smoke and heat (see clause 27.1 of BS 9999).
Only services associated with the firefighting shaft, such as ventilation systems and lighting for the firefighting shafts, should pass through or be contained within the firefighting shaft.
Doors of a firefighting lift landing should be a maximum of 7.5m from the door to the firefighting stair (Diagram 15.1).

ADB1 Para:15.9 Design and construction of firefighting shafts

Firefighting shafts should achieve a minimum fire resistance of REI 120. A minimum of REI 60 is acceptable for either of the following (see Diagram 15.1).
a. Constructions separating the firefighting shaft from the rest of the building.
b. Constructions separating the firefighting stair, firefighting lift shaft and firefighting lobby.

ADB1 Para:16.1 Provision of smoke outlets

Heat and smoke from basement fires vented via stairs can inhibit access for firefighting personnel. This may be reduced by providing smoke outlets, or smoke vents, which allow heat and smoke to escape from the basement levels to the open air. They can also be used by the fire and rescue service to let cooler air into the basements (Diagram 16.1).

ADB1 Para:16.1 Diagram 16.1 Fire resisting construction for smoke outlet shafts

Basement outlet with break-out or openable cover
Stallboard outlet with grille or removable cover
See para 16.1

ADB1 Para:16.10 Natural smoke outlets

Outlets should not be placed where they prevent the use of escape routes from the building.

ADB1 Para:16.11 Mechanical smoke extract

If basement storeys are fitted with a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E, a mechanical smoke extraction system may be provided as an alternative to natural venting. Sprinklers do not need to be installed on the other storeys unless needed for other reasons.
Car parks are not normally expected to be fitted with sprinklers (see Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).

ADB1 Para:16.12 Mechanical smoke extract

The air extraction system should comply with all of the following.
a. It should give at least 10 air changes per hour.
b. It should be capable of handling gas temperatures of 300°C for not less than one hour.
c. It should do either of the following.
i. Be activated automatically if the sprinkler system activates.
ii. Be activated by an automatic fire detection system that conforms to BS 5839-1 (minimum L3 standard).
Further information on equipment for removing hot smoke is given in BS EN 12101-3.

ADB1 Para:16.13 Construction of outlet ducts or shafts

Outlet ducts or shafts, including any bulkheads over them (see Diagram 16.1), should be enclosed in construction of class A1 rating and fire resistance at least equal to that of the element through which they pass.

ADB1 Para:16.14 Construction of outlet ducts or shafts

Natural smoke outlet shafts should be separated from each other using construction of class A1 rating and fire resistance at least equal to that of the storeys they serve, where the shafts are either of the following.
a. From different compartments of the same basement storey.
b. From different basement storeys.

ADB1 Para:16.2 Provision of smoke outlets

Each basement space should have one or more smoke outlets.
Where this is not practicable (for example, the plan area is deep and the amount of external wall is restricted by adjoining buildings), the perimeter basement spaces may be vented, with other spaces vented indirectly by opening connecting doors. This does not apply for places of special fire hazard (see paragraph 16.7).
If a basement is compartmented, each compartment should have one or more smoke outlets, rather than indirect venting.
A basement storey or compartment containing rooms with doors or windows does not need smoke outlets.

ADB1 Para:16.3 Provision of smoke outlets

Smoke outlets connecting directly to the open air should be provided from every basement storey, except for any basement storey that has both of the following.
a. A maximum floor area of 200m2.
b. A floor a maximum of 3m below the adjacent ground level.

ADB1 Para:16.4 Provision of smoke outlets

Strong rooms do not need to be provided with smoke outlets.

ADB1 Para:16.5 Natural smoke outlets

Smoke outlets should be both of the following.
a. Sited at high level in either the ceiling or wall of the space they serve.
b. Evenly distributed around the perimeter, to discharge to the open air.

ADB1 Para:16.6 Natural smoke outlets

The combined clear cross-sectional area of all smoke outlets should be a minimum of 1/40 of the area of the floor of the storey they serve.

ADB1 Para:16.7 Natural smoke outlets

Separate outlets should be provided from places of special fire hazard.

ADB1 Para:16.8 Natural smoke outlets

If the smoke outlet terminates at a point that is not readily accessible, it should be kept unobstructed and covered only with a class A1 grille or louvre.

ADB1 Para:16.9 Natural smoke outlets

If the smoke outlet terminates in a readily accessible position, it may be covered by a panel, stallboard or pavement light that can be broken out or opened. The position of covered smoke outlets should be suitably indicated.

This list was generated on Mon Sep 27 07:39:29 2021 UTC.