Items where Subject is "B4: External fire spread"

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a1 loading absorptive material air permeability approved document audit documentation b2 internal fire spread linings b3 internal fire spread structure b4 external fire spread b5 access and facilities for the fire service background ventilator boundary building and land associated with the building building control body building regulations can be ignored when assessing separation distance. This does not apply where the canopy is enclosed by side walls. Distance to relevant boundary measured from building line See para 11.12 cavity cavity barrier cavity stop cavity width chimney circulation space combustion appliances and fuel storage systems 2010 edition incorporating 2010 and 2013 amendments commissioning common balcony communal or common (area facilities or entrances) compartment (fire) compartment wall compartment wall or floor compartmentation construction phase construction site contrast visually cquivalent area d2 or better d2 rating by test may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) designation. 1. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B. 2. Not acceptable on any of the following buildings. a. Dwellinghouses in terraces of three or more dwellinghouses. b. Any other buildings with a cubic capacity of more than 1500m3. 3. Acceptable on buildings not listed in (1) if both of the following apply. a. Part of the roof has a maximum area of 3m2 and is a minimum of 1500mm from any similar part. b. The roof between the parts is covered with a material rated class A2-s3 definitions (ada) design air permeability design and build direct distance direct transmission draught diverter dwelling dwelling (l2a) dwelling type dwellinghouse early warning system element of structure equivalent area exempt buildings and work exit passageway explanation of terms used external wall final certificate fire compartment fire resistance fire resisting (Fire resistance) fire risk assessment fire safety - volume 1: dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england fire safety - volume 2: buildings other than dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england fire-separating element fire-stop (Fire-stopping) firefighting lift firefighting lobby firefighting shaft firefighting stair fit-out work flanking element floating floor floating layer floor fluepipe following edge (of door) free area frequency band going guarding health and safety file heat input rate height internal wall isolation local authority building control material alteration material changes of use materials means of escape non-combustible material non-worsening (of compliance) NOTE: Projections from the building line NOTES: Separation distances do not apply to the boundary between roofs of a pair of semi-detached dwellinghouses and to enclosed/covered walkways. However notified body notional boundary octave band one-third octave band outcomes-based system part b - fire safety passive stack ventilation (psv) plans certificates primary thermal store principal contractor principal designer principal works private (area facilities or entrances) project performance protected entrance hall/landing proven purpose group rated heat input reasonably practicable regulation regulation 7 - materials and workmanship relevant boundary resilient layer risk assessment risk assessments roof rooflight room room for residential purposes room-sealed appliance safety case sanitation hot water safety and water efficiency 2015 edition with 2016 amendments section see Diagram 5.2 if the roof passes over the top of a compartment wall. Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3 separated part separating floor separating wall should significant risks site spacing specified attachment storey storey exit such as a canopy or a loading platform suitable supported wall tapered tread the management regulations thermal element thermoplastic material total useful floor area toxic substances 1992 edition incorporating 2002 2010 and 2013 amendments travel distance unprotected area usable utility stair wall wholesome water window
Number of items at this level: 537.

a1 loading

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

absorptive material

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

air permeability

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

approved document

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

audit documentation

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

b2 internal fire spread linings

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

b3 internal fire spread structure

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

b4 external fire spread

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

b5 access and facilities for the fire service

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

background ventilator

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

boundary

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

building and land associated with the building

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

building control body

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

building regulations

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

can be ignored when assessing separation distance. This does not apply where the canopy is enclosed by side walls. Distance to relevant boundary measured from building line See para 11.12

ADB1 Para:11.6 Diagram 11.6 The effect of a canopy on separation distance

NOTE: Projections from the building line, such as a canopy or a loading platform, can be ignored when assessing separation distance. This does not apply where the canopy is enclosed by side walls.
Distance to relevant boundary measured from building line
See para 11.12

cavity

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

cavity barrier

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

cavity stop

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

cavity width

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

chimney

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

circulation space

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

combustion appliances and fuel storage systems 2010 edition incorporating 2010 and 2013 amendments

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

commissioning

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

common balcony

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

communal or common (area facilities or entrances)

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

compartment (fire)

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

compartment wall

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

compartment wall or floor

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

compartmentation

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

construction phase

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

construction site

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

contrast visually

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

cquivalent area

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

d2 or better

ADB1 Para:12.1 Table 12.1 Limitations on roof coverings

NOTES:
Separation distances do not apply to the boundary between roofs of a pair of semi-detached dwellinghouses and to enclosed/covered walkways. However, see Diagram 5.2 if the roof passes over the top of a compartment wall.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) designation.
1. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
2. Not acceptable on any of the following buildings.
a. Dwellinghouses in terraces of three or more dwellinghouses.
b. Any other buildings with a cubic capacity of more than 1500m3.
3. Acceptable on buildings not listed in (1) if both of the following apply.
a. Part of the roof has a maximum area of 3m2 and is a minimum of 1500mm from any similar part.
b. The roof between the parts is covered with a material rated class A2-s3, d2 or better.

d2 rating by test may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) designation. 1. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B. 2. Not acceptable on any of the following buildings. a. Dwellinghouses in terraces of three or more dwellinghouses. b. Any other buildings with a cubic capacity of more than 1500m3. 3. Acceptable on buildings not listed in (1) if both of the following apply. a. Part of the roof has a maximum area of 3m2 and is a minimum of 1500mm from any similar part. b. The roof between the parts is covered with a material rated class A2-s3

ADB1 Para:12.1 Table 12.1 Limitations on roof coverings

NOTES:
Separation distances do not apply to the boundary between roofs of a pair of semi-detached dwellinghouses and to enclosed/covered walkways. However, see Diagram 5.2 if the roof passes over the top of a compartment wall.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) designation.
1. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
2. Not acceptable on any of the following buildings.
a. Dwellinghouses in terraces of three or more dwellinghouses.
b. Any other buildings with a cubic capacity of more than 1500m3.
3. Acceptable on buildings not listed in (1) if both of the following apply.
a. Part of the roof has a maximum area of 3m2 and is a minimum of 1500mm from any similar part.
b. The roof between the parts is covered with a material rated class A2-s3, d2 or better.

definitions (ada)

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

design air permeability

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

design and build

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

direct distance

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

direct transmission

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

draught diverter

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

dwelling

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

dwelling (l2a)

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

dwelling type

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

dwellinghouse

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

early warning system

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

element of structure

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

equivalent area

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

exempt buildings and work

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

exit passageway

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

explanation of terms used

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

external wall

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

final certificate

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

fire compartment

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

fire resistance

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

fire resisting (Fire resistance)

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

fire risk assessment

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

fire safety - volume 1: dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

fire safety - volume 2: buildings other than dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:11.1 Introduction

The following assumptions enable a reasonable standard of resistance to the spread of fire to be specified.
a. The size of a fire depends on the compartmentation within the building. A fire may involve a complete compartment, but will not spread to other compartments.
b. The intensity of a fire is related to the building use, but can be moderated by a sprinkler system.
c. Fires in ‘residential’ and ‘assembly and recreation’ buildings (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5) represent a greater risk to life.
d. A building on the far side of the relevant boundary meets both of the following conditions.
i. Has a similar elevation to the one in question.
ii. Is the same distance as the one in question from the common boundary.
e. The radiated heat passing through any part of the fire resisting external wall may be discounted.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

fire-separating element

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

fire-stop (Fire-stopping)

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

firefighting lift

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

firefighting lobby

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

firefighting shaft

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

firefighting stair

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

fit-out work

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

flanking element

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

floating floor

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

floating layer

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

floor

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

fluepipe

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

following edge (of door)

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

free area

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

frequency band

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

going

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

guarding

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

health and safety file

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

heat input rate

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

height

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

internal wall

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

isolation

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

local authority building control

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

material alteration

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

material changes of use

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

materials

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

means of escape

ADB1 Para:15.1 Provision of firefighting shafts

In low rise buildings without deep basements, access for firefighting personnel is typically achieved by providing measures for fire service vehicle access in Section 13 and means of escape.

non-combustible material

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

non-worsening (of compliance)

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

NOTE: Projections from the building line

ADB1 Para:11.6 Diagram 11.6 The effect of a canopy on separation distance

NOTE: Projections from the building line, such as a canopy or a loading platform, can be ignored when assessing separation distance. This does not apply where the canopy is enclosed by side walls.
Distance to relevant boundary measured from building line
See para 11.12

NOTES: Separation distances do not apply to the boundary between roofs of a pair of semi-detached dwellinghouses and to enclosed/covered walkways. However

ADB1 Para:12.1 Table 12.1 Limitations on roof coverings

NOTES:
Separation distances do not apply to the boundary between roofs of a pair of semi-detached dwellinghouses and to enclosed/covered walkways. However, see Diagram 5.2 if the roof passes over the top of a compartment wall.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) designation.
1. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
2. Not acceptable on any of the following buildings.
a. Dwellinghouses in terraces of three or more dwellinghouses.
b. Any other buildings with a cubic capacity of more than 1500m3.
3. Acceptable on buildings not listed in (1) if both of the following apply.
a. Part of the roof has a maximum area of 3m2 and is a minimum of 1500mm from any similar part.
b. The roof between the parts is covered with a material rated class A2-s3, d2 or better.

notified body

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

notional boundary

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

octave band

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

one-third octave band

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

outcomes-based system

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

part b - fire safety

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

passive stack ventilation (psv)

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

plans certificates

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

primary thermal store

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

principal contractor

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

principal designer

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

principal works

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

private (area facilities or entrances)

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

project performance

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

protected entrance hall/landing

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

proven

ADB1 Para:14.5 Design and construction of fire mains

Guidance on the design and construction of fire mains is given in BS 9990.

purpose group

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

rated heat input

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

reasonably practicable

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

regulation

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

regulation 7 - materials and workmanship

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

relevant boundary

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

resilient layer

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

risk assessment

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

risk assessments

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

roof

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

rooflight

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

room

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

room for residential purposes

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

room-sealed appliance

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

safety case

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

sanitation hot water safety and water efficiency 2015 edition with 2016 amendments

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

section

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:10.8 Cavities and cavity barriers

Cavity barriers should be provided in accordance with Section 5 in dwellinghouses and Section 8 in flats.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

see Diagram 5.2 if the roof passes over the top of a compartment wall. Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3

ADB1 Para:12.1 Table 12.1 Limitations on roof coverings

NOTES:
Separation distances do not apply to the boundary between roofs of a pair of semi-detached dwellinghouses and to enclosed/covered walkways. However, see Diagram 5.2 if the roof passes over the top of a compartment wall.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) designation.
1. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
2. Not acceptable on any of the following buildings.
a. Dwellinghouses in terraces of three or more dwellinghouses.
b. Any other buildings with a cubic capacity of more than 1500m3.
3. Acceptable on buildings not listed in (1) if both of the following apply.
a. Part of the roof has a maximum area of 3m2 and is a minimum of 1500mm from any similar part.
b. The roof between the parts is covered with a material rated class A2-s3, d2 or better.

separated part

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

ADB1 Para:12.2 Introduction

Provisions for the fire properties of roofs are given in other parts of this document.
a. Requirement B1 – for roofs that are part of a means of escape.
b. Requirement B2 – for the internal surfaces of rooflights as part of internal linings.
c. Requirement B3 – for roofs that are used as a floor and for roofs passing over a compartment wall.
d. Section 11 – the circumstances in which a roof is subject to the provisions for space separation.

separating floor

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

separating wall

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

should

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

significant risks

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

site

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.3 Diagram 11.3 Notional boundary

NOTES:
The notional boundary should be set in the area between the two buildings using the following rules:
1. The notional boundary is assumed to exist in the space between the buildings and is positioned so that one of the buildings would comply with the provisions for space separation having regard to the amount of its unprotected area. In practice, if one of the buildings is existing, the position of the boundary will be set by the space separation factors for that building.
2. The siting of the new building, or the second building if both are new, can then be checked to see that it also complies, using the notional boundary as the relevant boundary for the second building.
Notional boundary
Site boundary
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building A
Compliance with the provisions for space separation in respect of building B
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Boundaries

The boundary that a wall faces is the relevant boundary (Diagram 11.2). It may be one of the following.
a. The site boundary.
b. The centre line of a space where further development is unlikely, such as a road, railway, canal or river.
c. An assumed notional boundary between two buildings on the same site (Diagram 11.3) where either of the following conditions is met.
i. One or both of the buildings are in the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose group 1 or 5).
ii. The buildings will be operated/managed by different organisations.

spacing

ADB1 Para:11.13 Canopies

Space separation may be disregarded if a canopy is all of the following.
a. Free-standing.
b. Above a limited risk or controlled hazard.
c. A minimum of 1000mm from the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

specified attachment

ADB1 Para:10.1 Introduction

The external wall of a building should not provide a medium for fire spread if that is likely to be a risk to health and safety. Combustible materials and cavities in external walls and attachments to them can present such a risk, particularly in tall buildings. The guidance in this section is designed to reduce the risk of vertical fire spread as well as the risk of ignition from flames coming from adjacent buildings.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

storey

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

storey exit

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

such as a canopy or a loading platform

ADB1 Para:11.6 Diagram 11.6 The effect of a canopy on separation distance

NOTE: Projections from the building line, such as a canopy or a loading platform, can be ignored when assessing separation distance. This does not apply where the canopy is enclosed by side walls.
Distance to relevant boundary measured from building line
See para 11.12

suitable

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

supported wall

ADB1 Para:10.7 Materials and products

Best practice guidance for green walls (also called living walls) can be found in Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls, published by the Department for Communities and Local Government.

tapered tread

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

the management regulations

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

thermal element

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Introduction

‘Roof covering’ describes one or more layers of material, but not the roof structure as a whole.

thermoplastic material

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.6 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.3 sets the limitations for using thermoplastic materials with a TP(a) rigid or TP(b) (see also Diagram 12.1) classification. The method of classifying thermoplastic materials is given in Appendix B.

total useful floor area

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

ADB1 Para:11.3 Introduction

If a reduced separation distance between buildings, or increased amount of unprotected area, is required, smaller compartments should be considered.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

toxic substances 1992 edition incorporating 2002 2010 and 2013 amendments

ADB1 Para:10.14 Additional considerations

The provisions of regulation 7 apply in addition to requirement B4. Therefore, for buildings described in regulation 7(4), the potential impact of any products incorporated into or onto the external walls and specified attachments should be carefully considered with regard to their number, size, orientation and position.

travel distance

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

ADB1 Para:11.4 Boundaries

The fire resistance of a wall depends on its distance from the relevant boundary (see Diagram 11.1). Separation distances are measured to boundaries to ensure that the location and design of buildings on adjoining sites have no influence on the building under consideration.

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:12.3 Separation distances

Separation distance is the minimum distance from the roof, or part of the roof, to the relevant boundary (paragraph 11.4). Table 12.1 sets out separation distances by the type of roof covering and the size and use of the building.
In addition, roof covering products (and/or materials) defined in Commission Decision 2000/553/ EC of 6 September 2000, implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, can be considered to fulfil all of the requirements for the performance characteristic ‘external fire performance’ without the need for testing, provided that any national provisions on the design and execution of works are fulfilled, and can be used without restriction.

unprotected area

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B4: External fire spread

External fire spread
B4.(1)The external walls of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the walls and from one building to another, having regard to the height, use and position of the building.
(2)The roof of the building shall adequately resist the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another, having regard to the use and position of the building.
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
(1)Building work shall be carried out—
(a)with adequate and proper materials which—
(i)are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used,
(ii)are adequately mixed or prepared, and
(iii)are applied, used or fixed so as adequately to perform the functions for which they are designed; and
(b)in a workmanlike manner.
(2)Subject to paragraph (3), building work shall be carried out so that materials which become part of an external wall, or specified attachment, of a relevant building are of European Classification A2-s1, d0 or A1, classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009 entitled “Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests” (ISBN 978 0 580 59861 6) published by the British Standards Institution on 30th March 2007 and amended in November 2009.
(3)Paragraph (2) does not apply to—
(a)cavity trays when used between two leaves of masonry;
(b)any part of a roof (other than any part of a roof which falls within paragraph (iv) of regulation 2(6))if that part is connected to an external wall;
(c)door frames and doors;
(d)electrical installations;
(e)insulation and water proofing materials used below ground level;
(f)intumescent and fire stopping materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the requirements of Part B of Schedule 1;
(g)membranes;
(h)seals, gaskets, fixings, sealants and backer rods;
(i)thermal break materials where the inclusion of the materials is necessary to meet the thermal bridging requirements of Part L of Schedule 1; or
(j)window frames and glass.
(4)In this regulation—
(a)a “relevant building” means a building with a storey (not including roof-top plant areas or any storey consisting exclusively of plant rooms) at least 18 metres above ground level and which—
(i)contains one or more dwellings;
(ii)contains an institution; or
(iii)contains a room for residential purposes(excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or boarding house); and
(b)“above ground level” in relation to a storey means above ground level when measured from the lowest ground level adjoining the outside of a building to the top of the floor surface of the storey.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention Resisting fire spread over external walls

The external envelope of a building should not contribute to undue fire spread from one part of a
building to another part. This intention can be met by constructing external walls so that both of
the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building and spread of
fire over the outside surface is restricted.
b. The materials used to construct external walls, and attachments to them, and how they are
assembled do not contribute to the rate of fire spread up the outside of the building.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the height and use of the building.

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Resisting fire spread from one building to another

The external envelope of a building should not provide a medium for undue fire spread to
adjacent buildings or be readily ignited by fires in adjacent buildings. This intention can be met by
constructing external walls so that all of the following are satisfied.
a. The risk of ignition by an external source to the outside surface of the building is restricted.
b. The amount of thermal radiation that falls on a neighbouring building from window openings
and other unprotected areas in the building on fire is not enough to start a fire in the other
building.
c. Flame spread over the roof and/or fire penetration from external sources through the roof is
restricted.
The extent to which this is necessary depends on the use of the building and its position in relation
to adjacent buildings and therefore the site boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.1 Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls

Table 10.1 Reaction to fire performance of external surface of walls
‘Relevant buildings’ as defined in regulation 7(4) (see paragraph 10.10)
NOTES:
In addition to the requirements within this table, buildings with a top occupied storey above 18m should also meet the provisions of paragraph 10.6.
In all cases, the advice in paragraph 10.4 should be followed.
1. The restrictions for these buildings apply to all the materials used in the external wall and specified attachments (see paragraphs 10.9 to 10.12 for further guidance).
2. Profiled or flat steel sheet at least 0.5 mm thick with an organic coating of no more than 0.2mm thickness is also acceptable.
3. Timber cladding at least 9mm thick is also acceptable.
4. 10m is measured from the top surface of the roof.

ADB1 Para:10.10 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(2) applies to any building with a storey at least 18m above ground level (as measured in accordance with Diagram D6 in Appendix D) and which contains one or more dwellings; an institution; or a room for residential purposes (excluding any room in a hostel, hotel or a boarding house). It requires that all materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment achieve class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).
NOTE: The above includes student accommodation, care homes, sheltered housing, hospitals and dormitories in boarding schools. See regulation 7(4) for the definition of relevant buildings.
NOTE: The requirement in regulation 7(2) is limited to materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1.

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.12 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(3) provides an exemption for certain components found in external walls and specified attachments.

ADB1 Para:10.13 Material change of use

Regulations 5(k) and 6(3) provide that, where the use of a building is changed such that the building becomes a building described in regulation 7(4), the construction of the external walls, and specified attachments, must be investigated and, where necessary, work must be carried out to ensure they only contain materials achieving class A2-s1, d0 or class A1, other than those exempted by regulation 7(3).

ADB1 Para:10.15 Additional considerations

Particular attention is drawn to the following points.
a. Membranes used as part of the external wall construction above ground level should achieve a minimum of class B-s3, d0.
b. Internal linings should comply with the guidance provided in Section 4.
c. Any part of a roof should achieve the minimum performance as detailed in Section 12.
d. As per regulation 7(3), window frames and glass (including laminated glass) are exempted from regulation 7(2). Window spandrel panels and infill panels must comply with regulation 7(2).
e. Thermal breaks are small elements used as part of the external wall construction to restrict thermal bridging. There is no minimum performance for these materials. However, they should not span two compartments and should be limited in size to the minimum required to restrict the thermal bridging (the principal insulation layer is not to be regarded as a thermal break).
f. Regulation 7(2) only applies to specified attachments. Shop front signs and similar attachments are not covered by the requirements of regulation 7(2), although attention is drawn to paragraph 10.15g.
g. While regulation 7(2) applies to materials which become part of an external wall or specified attachment, consideration should be given to other attachments to the wall which could impact on the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.2 Fire resistance

This section does not deal with fire resistance for external walls. An external wall may need fire resistance to meet the requirements of Section 3 (Means of escape – flats), Section 6 (Loadbearing elements of structures – flats) or Section 11 (Resisting fire spread from one building to another).

ADB1 Para:10.3 Combustibility of external walls

The external walls of buildings other than those described in regulation 7(4) of the Building Regulations should achieve either of the following.
a. Follow the provisions given in paragraphs 10.5 to 10.8, which provide guidance on all of the following.
i. External surfaces.
ii. Materials and products.
iii. Cavities and cavity barriers.
b. Meet the performance criteria given in BRE report BR 135 for external walls using full-scale test data from BS 8414-1 or BS 8414-2.

ADB1 Para:10.4 Combustibility of external walls

In relation to buildings of any height or use, consideration should be given to the choice of materials (including their extent and arrangement) used for the external wall, or attachments to the wall, to reduce the risk of fire spread over the wall.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:10.6 Materials and products

In a building with a storey 18m or more in height (see Diagram D6 in Appendix D) any insulation product, filler material (such as the core materials of metal composite panels, sandwich panels and window spandrel panels but not including gaskets, sealants and similar) etc. used in the construction of an external wall should be class A2-s3, d2 or better (see Appendix B). This restriction does not apply to masonry cavity wall construction which complies with Diagram 8.2 in Section 8. Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over all the provisions in this paragraph.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

ADB1 Para:11.1 Table 11.1 Permitted unprotected areas in small buildings or compartments

NOTES:
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.
1.The total percentage of unprotected area is found by dividing the total unprotected area by the area of a rectangle that encloses all the unprotected areas, and multiplying the result by 100.

ADB1 Para:11.10 External walls of protected stairways

Exclude external walls of protected stairways when assessing unprotected areas (see Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:11.11 Small unprotected areas

In an otherwise protected wall, small unprotected areas may be ignored where they meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5.

ADB1 Para:11.12 Canopies

Where both of the following apply, separation distances may be determined from the wall rather than from the edge of the canopy (Diagram 11.6).
a. The canopy is attached to the side of a building.
b. The edges of the canopy are a minimum of 2m from the relevant boundary.
Canopies that fall within class 6 or class 7 of Schedule 2 to the regulations (Exempt Buildings and Work) are exempt from the Building Regulations.

ADB1 Para:11.2 Diagram 11.2 Relevant boundary

This boundary coincides with and is therefore relevant to side A
The boundary is parallel to side B2
But the relevant boundary may be the centre line of a road, railway, canal or river
NOTES:
This boundary is at less than 80 degrees to side C and is therefore relevant to side C
This diagram sets out the rules that apply in respect of a boundary for it to be considered as a relevant boundary.
For a boundary to be relevant it should comply with one of the following:
a. Coincide with the side of the building (A).
b. Be parallel to the side of the building (B1 or B2).
c. Be at an angle of maximum 80 degrees to the side of the building (C).
This boundary is parallel to and therefore relevant to side B1
See para 11.5

ADB1 Para:11.4 Diagram 11.4 Status of materials achieving class B-s3, d2 or worse as unprotected area

Area of fire resisting wall with materials more than 1mm thick and with a reaction to fire performance worse than class B-s3, d2 = a x b
Area of wall counted as unprotected area = 0.5a x b
Area of fire resisting wall with materials having a reaction to fire performance better than class B-s3, d2
See para 11.7

ADB1 Para:11.5 Diagram 11.5 Small unprotected areas that may be disregarded in assessing the separation distance from the boundary

The unprotected area of the external wall of a stairway forming a protected shaft may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Roofs pitched at an angle of less than 70 degrees may be disregarded for separation distance purposes
Represents an unprotected area of not more than 1m2 which may consist of two or more smaller areas within an area of 1000mm X 1000mm
Represents an area of not more than 0.1m2
See para 11.11

ADB1 Para:11.6 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Parts of an external wall with less fire resistance than the appropriate amount given in Appendix B, Table B4, are called unprotected areas.

ADB1 Para:11.7 Unprotected areas and fire resistance

Where a fire resisting external wall has a surface material that is worse than class B-s3, d2 and is more than 1mm thick, that part of the wall should be classified as an unprotected area equating to half its area (Diagram 11.4).

ADB1 Para:11.7 Diagram 11.7 Permitted unprotected areas in small residential buildings

Minimum distance (a) between side of building and relevant boundary (m) Maximum total area of unprotected areas (m2)
See para 11.18

ADB1 Para:11.8 External walls on, and within 1000mm of, the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should meet the conditions in Diagram 11.5, and the rest of the wall should be fire resisting from both sides.
External surface materials facing the boundary should be class B-s3, d2 or better.

ADB1 Para:11.9 External walls 1000mm or more from the relevant boundary

Unprotected areas should not exceed the result given by one of the methods in paragraph 11.16, and the rest of the wall (if any) should be fire resisting but only from the inside of the building.

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.3 Table 12.3 TP(a) and TP(b) thermoplastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in section 4.
2. No limit in the case of any space described in 2a, b and c.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

ADB1 Para:12.9 Thatch and wood shingles

If the performance of thatch or wood shingles cannot be established, they should be regarded as having an EROOF(t4) classification in Table 12.1.
NOTE: Consideration can be given to thatched roofs being closer to the relevant boundary than shown in Table 12.1 if, for example, all of the following precautions (based on the LABC publication Thatched Buildings (the Dorset Model): New Properties and Extensions) are incorporated in the design.
a. The rafters are overdrawn with construction having not less than 30 minutes’ fire resistance.
b. The guidance given in Approved Document J is followed.
c. The smoke alarm installation (see Section 1) extends to the roof spaces.

usable

ADB1 Para:10.9 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

Regulation 7(1)(a) requires that materials used in building work are appropriate for the circumstances in which they are used. Regulation 7(2) sets requirements in respect of external walls and specified attachments in relevant buildings.
NOTE: Guidance on regulation 7(1) can be found in Approved Document 7.

utility stair

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

ADB1 Para:12.7 Plastic rooflights

Other than for the purposes of Diagram 5.2, polycarbonate or uPVC rooflights achieving a minimum rating of class C-s3, d2 can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

wall

ADB1 Para:10.11 Regulation 7(2) and requirement B4 Materials

External walls and specified attachments are defined in regulation 2 and these definitions include any parts of the external wall as well as balconies, solar panels and sun shading.

ADB1 Para:10.5 External surfaces

The external surfaces (i.e. outermost external material) of external walls should comply with the provisions in Table 10.1. The provisions in Table 10.1 apply to each wall individually in relation to its proximity to the relevant boundary.

ADB1 Para:11.1 Diagram 11.1 Principles of space separation

Wall sufficiently distant from relevant boundary to be a 100% unprotected area
Wall on or very close to the relevant boundary: very limited amounts of unprotected area
Wall not on, or not very close to, but not sufficiently far from relevant boundary that it can be a wholly unprotected area
Amount of unprotected area dependent on distance from relevant boundary
See para 11.4

wholesome water

ADB1 Para:11.2 Introduction

Where regulation 7(2) applies, that regulation prevails over the provisions within this section.

window

ADB1 Para:12.1 Diagram 12.1 Limitations on spacing and size of plastic rooflights that have a class D-s3, d2 or TP(b) lower surface

NOTES:
1.There are restrictions on the use of plastic rooflights in the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2.Surrounding roof covering to be a material of class A2-s3, d3 or better for at least 3m distance.
3.Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be at least 1500mm from the compartment wall.
See paras 12.5 and 12.6

ADB1 Para:12.2 Table 12.2 Class D-s3, d2 plastic rooflights: limitations on use and boundary distance

NOTES:
None of the above designations are suitable for protected stairways.
Polycarbonate and uPVC rooflights that achieve a class C-s3, d2 rating by test (see paragraph 12.7) may be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.
Where Diagram 5.2a or 5.2b applies, rooflights should be a minimum of 1500mm from the compartment wall.
If double-skinned or laminate products have upper and lower surfaces of different materials, the greater distance applies.
1. See also the guidance to requirement B2 in Section 4.
2. The designation of external roof surfaces is explained in Appendix B.
3. Single-skinned rooflight only, in the case of non-thermoplastic material.
4. The rooflight should also meet the provisions of Diagram 12.1.

ADB1 Para:12.4 Separation distances

The performance of rooflights is specified in a similar way to the performance of roof coverings. Plastic rooflights may also be used.

ADB1 Para:12.5 Plastic rooflights

Table 12.2 and Diagram 12.1 set the limitations for using plastic rooflights whose lower surface has a minimum class D-s3, d2 rating.

ADB1 Para:12.8 Unwired glass in rooflights

When used in rooflights, unwired glass a minimum of 4mm thick can be regarded as having a BROOF(t4) classification.

This list was generated on Sat Feb 27 13:46:37 2021 UTC.