Items where Subject is "B1: Means of warning and escape"

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access access room accessible accessible entrance air path air permeability alternating tread stair alternative escape routes alternative exit annex c: glossary appliance ventilation duct approved document approved inspectors regulations atrium (plural atria) automatic release mechanism b1 means of waring and escape b3 internal fire spread structure b4 external fire spread b5 access and facilities for the fire service basement basement storey bathroom bedspace boundary building building and land associated with the building building contract building control building control bodies building regulations advisory committee (brac) building regulations compliance certificate building safety building work cavity barrier cavity stop cavity width ceiling cellar change control procedures circulation space clear access route clear opening width clear turning circle clear width closable opening combustion appliance (or appliance) commissioning common balcony common parts common space common stair communal or common (area facilities or entrances) compartment (fire) compartment wall compartment wall or floor compartmentation construction programme construction site construction strategy continuous operation contractors proposals contrast visually controlled services or fittings corridor access dead end dead load decibel (dB) definitions definitions (ada) designation system designer direct distance display window dwelling dwelling (l2a) dwelling type dwellinghouse early warning system easily accessible electrical installation* element of structure emergency escape lighting emergency lighting entrance storey equivalent area escape lighting escape route evacuation lift exempt buildings and work exit passageway explanation of terms used external wall final certificate final exit fire alarm system fire and smoke damper fire compartment fire damper fire doorset fire resistance fire resisting (Fire resistance) fire risk assessment fire safety - volume 1: dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england fire safety - volume 2: buildings other than dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england fire-separating element fire-stop (Fire-stopping) firefighting lift firefighting lobby firefighting shaft firefighting stair fireplace recess fit-out work flat flight floor flue outlet flueblock chimney flueless appliance following edge (of door) free area gallery general access stair going habitable room handrail health & safety strategy health and safety file height helical stair high-usage entrance door higher risk residential building (hrrb) hot water storage system package hot water storage system unit indirect heating installation instructions intermediate landing kitchen landing leading edge (of door) level liftway light reflectance value (lrv) limiting air permeability live/work unit live–work units maintenance and operational strategy material changes of use means of escape measurement mixed-use developments non-combustible material non-worsening (of compliance) nosing notified body occupiable room open spatial planning open-flued appliance outcomes-based system part b - fire safety part l - conservation of fuel and power passive stack ventilation (psv) permanent opening is a ventilation opening pier pitch place of special fire hazard plans certificates plot gradient potential level access shower pre-construction information prefabricated appliance chamber prescriptive system primary thermal store principal communal entrance principal entrance principal private entrance principal storey principal works private (area facilities or entrances) private stair project budget protected circuit protected corridor/lobby protected entrance hall/landing protected shaft protected stairway proven purpose group purpose-provided ventilation ramped regulation 7 - materials and workmanship resistance to the passage of sound 2003 edition incorporating 2004 2010 2013 and 2015 amendments rise roof rooflight room room for residential purposes room-sealed appliance sanitary accommodation sanitation hot water safety and water efficiency 2015 edition with 2016 amendments schedule section secure window self-closing device separated part separating floor separating wall sheltered housing should simple payback single storey site preparation and resistance to contaminants and moisture 2004 edition incorporating 2010 and 2013 amendments specialist process lighting specified attachment spiral stair stack effect stair width step-free storey storey exit structure 2004 edition incorporating 20042010 and 2013 amendments suitable tread nosings surface water activity suspended ceiling tapered tread the management regulations total useful floor area travel distance unprotected area utility room utility stair vented (open) hot water storage system ventilation ventilation opening vomitory exits wall wet room wheelchair accessible wheelchair adaptable whole building ventilation window workplace regulations
Number of items at this level: 1430.

access

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

access room

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

accessible

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

accessible entrance

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

air path

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

air permeability

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

alternating tread stair

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

alternative escape routes

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

alternative exit

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

annex c: glossary

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

appliance ventilation duct

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

approved document

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

approved inspectors regulations

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

atrium (plural atria)

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

automatic release mechanism

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

b1 means of waring and escape

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

b3 internal fire spread structure

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

b4 external fire spread

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

b5 access and facilities for the fire service

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

basement

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

basement storey

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

bathroom

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

bedspace

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

boundary

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

building

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

building and land associated with the building

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

building contract

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

building control

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

building control bodies

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

building regulations advisory committee (brac)

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

building regulations compliance certificate

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

building safety

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

building work

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

cavity barrier

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

cavity stop

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

cavity width

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

ceiling

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

cellar

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

change control procedures

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

circulation space

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

clear access route

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

clear opening width

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

clear turning circle

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

clear width

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

closable opening

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

combustion appliance (or appliance)

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

commissioning

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

common balcony

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

common parts

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

common space

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

common stair

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

communal or common (area facilities or entrances)

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

compartment (fire)

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

compartment wall

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

compartment wall or floor

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

compartmentation

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

construction programme

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

construction site

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

construction strategy

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

continuous operation

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

contractors proposals

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

contrast visually

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

controlled services or fittings

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

corridor access

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

dead end

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

dead load

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

decibel (dB)

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

definitions

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

definitions (ada)

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

designation system

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

designer

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

direct distance

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

display window

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

dwelling

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

dwelling (l2a)

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

dwelling type

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

dwellinghouse

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

early warning system

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

easily accessible

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

electrical installation*

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

element of structure

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

emergency escape lighting

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

emergency lighting

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

entrance storey

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

equivalent area

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

escape lighting

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

escape route

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

evacuation lift

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

exempt buildings and work

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

exit passageway

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

explanation of terms used

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

external wall

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

final certificate

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

final exit

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

fire alarm system

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

fire and smoke damper

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

fire compartment

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

fire damper

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

fire doorset

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

fire resistance

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

fire resisting (Fire resistance)

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

fire risk assessment

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

fire safety - volume 1: dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

fire safety - volume 2: buildings other than dwellings. 2019 edition - for use in england

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

fire-separating element

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

fire-stop (Fire-stopping)

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

firefighting lift

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

firefighting lobby

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

firefighting shaft

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

firefighting stair

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

fireplace recess

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

fit-out work

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

flat

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

flight

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

floor

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

flue outlet

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

flueblock chimney

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

flueless appliance

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

following edge (of door)

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

free area

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

gallery

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.12 Balconies and flat roofs

For flats more than 4.5m above ground level, a balcony outside an alternative exit should be a common balcony meeting the conditions described in paragraph 3.22.

general access stair

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

going

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

habitable room

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Diagram 3.2 Flat where all habitable rooms have direct access to an entrance hall

See para 3.18
NOTE: Bathrooms do not need to have fire doorsets provided that the bathroom is separated by fire resisting construction from the adjacent rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

handrail

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

health & safety strategy

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

health and safety file

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

height

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

helical stair

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

high-usage entrance door

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

higher risk residential building (hrrb)

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

hot water storage system package

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

hot water storage system unit

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:1.4 General provisions

Smoke and heat alarms should have a standby power supply, such as a battery (rechargeable
or non-rechargeable) or capacitor. More information on power supplies is given in clause 15 of
BS 5839-6.
NOTE: The term ‘fire alarm system’ describes the combination of components for giving an audible
and/or other perceptible warning of fire.
NOTE: In this document, the term ‘fire detection system’ describes any type of automatic sensor
network and associated control and indicating equipment. Sensors may be sensitive to smoke,
heat, gaseous combustion products or radiation. Automatic sprinkler systems can also be used to
operate a fire alarm system.

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

indirect heating

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

installation instructions

ADB1 Para:1.14 Design and installation of systems

Fire detection and alarm systems must be properly designed, installed and maintained. A design,
installation and commissioning certificate should be provided for fire detection and alarm systems.
Third party certification schemes for fire protection products and related services are an effective
means of providing assurances of quality, reliability and safety.

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

intermediate landing

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

kitchen

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

landing

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

leading edge (of door)

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

level

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

liftway

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

light reflectance value (lrv)

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

limiting air permeability

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

live/work unit

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

live–work units

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

maintenance and operational strategy

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

material changes of use

ADB1 Para:2.22 Loft conversions

Where it is undesirable to replace existing doors because of historical or architectural merit, the possibility of retaining, and where necessary upgrading, them should be investigated.

means of escape

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.26 Number of escape routes

A person escaping through the common area, if confronted by the effects of a fire in another flat, should be able to turn away from it and make a safe escape via an alternative route.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Introduction

Provisions are recommended to support a stay put evacuation strategy for blocks of flats. It is based on the principle that a fire is contained in the flat of origin and common escape routes are maintained relatively free from smoke and heat. It allows occupants, some of whom may require assistance to escape in the event of a fire, in other flats that are not affected to remain.
Sufficient protection to common means of escape is necessary to allow occupants to escape should they choose to do so or are instructed/aided to by the fire service. A higher standard of protection is therefore needed to ensure common escape routes remain available for a longer period than is provided in other buildings.

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

measurement

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

mixed-use developments

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

non-combustible material

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

non-worsening (of compliance)

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

nosing

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

notified body

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

occupiable room

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

open spatial planning

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

open-flued appliance

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

outcomes-based system

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

part b - fire safety

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

part l - conservation of fuel and power

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

passive stack ventilation (psv)

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

permanent opening is a ventilation opening

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

pier

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

pitch

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

place of special fire hazard

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.73 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Except in buildings described in paragraph 3.28, common stairs forming part of the only escape route from a flat should not serve any of the following.
a. Covered car park.
b. Boiler room.
c. Fuel storage space.
d. Other ancillary accommodation of similar fire risk.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

plans certificates

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

plot gradient

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

potential level access shower

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

pre-construction information

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

prefabricated appliance chamber

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

prescriptive system

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

primary thermal store

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

principal communal entrance

ADB1 Para:1.10 Blocks of flats

Each flat in a block should have alarms as set out in paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4. With effective compartmentation, a communal fire alarm system is not normally needed. In some buildings, detectors in common parts of the building may need to operate smoke control or other fire protection systems but do not usually sound an audible warning.

ADB1 Para:1.11 Student accommodation

In student residences that are designed and occupied as a block of flats, separate automatic detection should be provided in each self-contained flat where all of the following apply.
a. A group of up to six students shares the flat.
b. Each flat has its own entrance door.
c. The compartmentation principles for flats in Section 7 have been followed.
Where a total evacuation strategy is adopted, the alarm system should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

principal entrance

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

principal private entrance

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

principal storey

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.5 "Diagram 3.5 Multi-storey flat with alternative exits from each habitable room, except at entrance level"

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Alternative exit
Bathroom
ENTRANCE LEVEL
LEVEL(S) ABOVE OR BELOW ENTRANCE LEVEL

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

principal works

ADB1 Para:1.12 Sheltered housing

The fire detection and alarm systems in flats should connect to a central monitoring point or alarm
receiving centre. The systems should alert the warden or supervisor and identify the individual flat
where a fire has been detected.

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.2 Introduction

The provisions in this section make the following assumptions.
a. Any fire is likely to be in a flat.
b. There is no reliance on external rescue.
c. Simultaneous evacuation of all flats is unlikely to be necessary due to compartmentation.
d. Fires in common parts of the building should not spread beyond the fabric in the immediate vicinity. In some cases, however, communal facilities exist that require additional measures to be taken.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

private (area facilities or entrances)

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

private stair

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

project budget

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

protected circuit

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

protected corridor/lobby

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.34 Common escape routes

Common corridors should be protected corridors. The wall between each flat and the corridor should be a compartment wall (minimum REI 30 where the top storey is up to 5m above ground level, otherwise REI 60).

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.36 Common escape routes

A fire doorset (minimum E 30 Sa) fitted with a self-closing device (and fire resisting screen, where required) should separate the dead-end portion of a common corridor from the rest of the corridor (Diagrams 3.7a, 3.8b and 3.8c).

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

protected entrance hall/landing

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.19 Flats with an alternative exit

Where access from any habitable room to the entrance hall or flat entrance is impossible without passing through another room, all of the following conditions should be met (Diagram 3.4).
a. Bedrooms should be separated from living accommodation by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20).
b. The alternative exit should be in the part of the flat that contains the bedrooms.

ADB1 Para:3.3 Diagram 3.3 Flat with restricted travel distance from furthest point to entrance

See para 3.18
Flat entrance
Kitchen area
Bath

protected shaft

ADB1 Para:2.7 Passenger lifts

A passenger lift serving any storey more than 4.5m above ground level should be in either of the following.
a. The enclosure to the protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5.
b. A fire resisting lift shaft (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.51 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Smoke vents should comply with one of the following.
a. They should be located on an external wall with minimum free area of 1.5m2.
b. They should discharge into a vertical smoke shaft, closed at the base, that meets all of the following criteria.
i. The shaft should conform to the following conditions.
• Have a minimum cross-sectional area of 1.5m2 (minimum dimension 0.85m in any direction).
• Open at roof level, minimum 0.5m above any surrounding structures within 2m of it horizontally.
• Extend a minimum of 2.5m above the ceiling of the highest storey served by the shaft.
ii. The free area of all the following vents should be a minimum of 1m2 in the following places.
• From the corridor or lobby into the shaft.
• At the opening at the head of the shaft.
• At all internal locations within the shaft (e.g. safety grilles).
iii. The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance and designed to operate as described below. The shaft should be vertical from base to head, with a maximum of 4m at a maximum inclined angle of 30 degrees.
iv. If smoke is detected in the common corridor or lobby, both of the following should occur.
• Simultaneous opening of vents on the storey where the fire is located, at the top of the smoke shaft and to the stair.
• Vents from the corridors or lobbies on all other storeys should remain closed, even if smoke is subsequently detected on storeys other than where the fire is located.

protected stairway

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.10 Diagram 3.10 External protection to protected stairways

Configurations of stairs and external wall
Fire resisting construction
Fire resisting construction of adjacent building enclosure of protected stairway
Non-fire resisting construction
See para 3.63

ADB1 Para:3.11 Diagram 3.11 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
1100mm zone above top landing
6m maximum height of stair
Fire resisting window (minimum RE30)
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stair
Fire doorset (minimum E30)
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
6m maximum height of stair without weather protection
9m zone of fire resisting construction below stair
Ground level or a roof or podium served by an independent stairway
See para 3.68

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.25 Means of escape in the common parts of flats

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit. They do not apply to flats with a top storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level (designed in accordance with paragraphs 3.16 and 3.17).
Reference should also be made to the following.
a. Requirement B3 regarding compartment walls and protected shafts.
b. Requirement B5 regarding access for the fire and rescue service.

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.4 "Diagram 3.4 Flat with an alternative exit, but where all habitable rooms have no direct access to an entrance hall"

See para 3.19
NOTE: The bedrooms are not classified as inner rooms because escape is possible in two directions.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) between living and bedroom accommodation
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.62 Enclosure of common stairs

Every common stair should be a protected stairway, within a fire resisting enclosure (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

proven

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

purpose group

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

purpose-provided ventilation

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

ADB1 Para:3.75 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a stair serves an enclosed car park or place of special fire hazard, the lobby or corridor should have a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.

ramped

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

regulation 7 - materials and workmanship

Para:UNSPECIFIED Intention

In the Secretary of State’s view, requirement B1 is met by achieving all of the following.
a. There are sufficient means for giving early warning of fire to people in the building.
b. All people can escape to a place of safety without external assistance.
c. Escape routes are suitably located, sufficient in number and of adequate capacity.
d. Where necessary, escape routes are sufficiently protected from the effects of fire and smoke.
e. Escape routes are adequately lit and exits are suitably signed.
f. There are appropriate provisions to limit the ingress of smoke to the escape routes, or to
restrict the spread of fire and remove smoke.
g. For buildings containing flats, there are appropriate provisions to support a stay put evacuation
strategy.
The extent to which any of these measures are necessary is dependent on the use of the building,
its size and its height.
Building work and material changes of use subject to requirement B1 include both new and existing
buildings.

resistance to the passage of sound 2003 edition incorporating 2004 2010 2013 and 2015 amendments

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

rise

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

ADB1 Para:3.4 Introduction

Paragraphs 3.6 to 3.23 deal with the means of escape within each flat. Paragraphs 3.25 to 3.89 deal with the means of escape in common areas of the building (including mixed use buildings in paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77). Guidance for live/work units is given in paragraph 3.24.

roof

ADB1 Para:3.69 External escape stairs

Access to an external escape stair may be via a flat roof, provided the flat roof meets the requirements of paragraph 3.30.

rooflight

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

room

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

room for residential purposes

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

ADB1 Para:1.9 Extensions and material alterations

Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces of the dwelling in accordance with
paragraphs 1.1 to 1.4.
NOTE: This does not apply where inner rooms are provided (see paragraph 2.11 for inner room
requirements).

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

room-sealed appliance

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

sanitary accommodation

ADB1 Para:2.8 Air circulation systems

Air circulation systems which circulate air within an individual dwellinghouse with a floor more than
4.5m above ground level should meet the guidance given in paragraph 2.9.

sanitation hot water safety and water efficiency 2015 edition with 2016 amendments

ADB1 Para:2.14 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

ADB1 Para:3.11 Balconies and flat roofs

A balcony or flat roof intended to form part of an escape route should be provided with guarding etc. in accordance with Approved Document K.

schedule

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

section

ADB1 Para:UNSPECIFIED Requirement B1: Means of warning and escape

Means of warning and escape
B1.The building shall be designed and constructed so that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire from the building to a place of safety outside the building capable of being safely and effectively used at all material times.
Requirement B1 does not apply to any prison provided under section 33 of the Prison Act 1952
(a) (power to provide prisons, etc.).
(a) 1952 c. 52; section 33 was amended by section 100 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c. 33) and by S.I. 1963/597.

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

ADB1 Para:6.6 Conversion to flats

In a converted building with a maximum of three storeys, a minimum REI 30 fire resistance could be accepted for elements of structure if the means of escape conform to the provisions of Section 3.

secure window

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

self-closing device

ADB1 Para:3.35 Common escape routes

Divide a common corridor connecting two or more storey exits with a fire doorset fitted with a self-closing device (minimum E 30 Sa). See Diagram 3.8. Associated screens should be fire resisting. Site doors so that smoke does not affect access to more than one stair.

ADB1 Para:3.38 Headroom in common escape routes

Escape routes should have a minimum clear headroom of 2m. The only projections allowed below this height are door frames.

separated part

ADB1 Para:1.15 Interface between fire detection and alarm systems and other systems

Fire detection and alarm systems sometimes trigger other systems. The interface between systems
must be reliable. Particular care should be taken if the interface is facilitated via another system.
Where any part of BS 7273 applies to the triggering of other systems, the recommendations of that
part of BS 7273 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Introduction

Separate guidance applies to means of escape within the flat and within the common parts of the building that lead to a place of safety. Flats at ground level are treated similarly to dwellinghouses. With increasing height, more complex provisions are needed.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:3.77 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with more than three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve the flats and other occupancies if all of the following apply.
a. The flat is ancillary to the main use of the building.
b. The flat has an independent alternative escape route.
c. The stair is separated from occupancies on lower storeys by a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) at each of those storeys.
d. The stair enclosure has at least the same standard of fire resistance as the structural elements of the building (see Appendix B, Table B4); if the stair is a firefighting stair, it should comply with the provisions in Section 15 (see also paragraph 3.60).
e. Any automatic fire detection and alarm system fitted in the main part of the building also covers all flats.
f. Any security measures in any parts of the building do not prevent escape at all material times.

separating floor

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

separating wall

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

sheltered housing

ADB1 Para:1.13 Sheltered housing

These provisions do not apply to the following.
a. The common parts of a sheltered housing development, such as communal lounges.
b. Sheltered accommodation in the 'residential (institutional)' or 'residential (other)' purpose groups (purpose group 2(a) or 2(b)).
In these parts, means of warning should follow the guidance for buildings other than dwellings in Volume 2 of Approved Document B.

should

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.18 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Work should comply with Parts K and L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations. When complete, the building should comply with other applicable parts of Schedule 1 to at least the same level as before.

ADB1 Para:2.21 Loft conversions

Where a new storey is added through conversion to create a storey above 4.5m, both of the following should apply.
a. The full extent of the escape route should be addressed.
b. Fire resisting doors (minimum E 20) and partitions (minimum REI 30) should be provided, including upgrading the existing doors where necessary.
NOTE: Where the layout is open plan, new partitions should be provided to enclose the escape route (Diagram 2.2).

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

ADB1 Para:3.78 Use of space within protected stairways

A protected stairway should not be used for anything else, except a lift well or electricity meters.

ADB1 Para:3.79 Electricity meter(s) in protected stairways

In single stair buildings, electricity meters should be in securely locked cupboards. Cupboards should be separated from the escape route by fire resisting construction.

simple payback

ADB1 Para:3.47 Protected power circuits

A protected circuit to operate equipment during a fire should achieve all of the following.
a. Cables should achieve PH 30 classification when tested in accordance with BS EN 50200 (incorporating Annex E) or an equivalent standard.
b. It should only pass through parts of the building in which the fire risk is negligible.
c. It should be separate from any circuit provided for another purpose.

single storey

ADB1 Para:1.5 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse has more than one storey, and at least one storey exceeds 200m2.

ADB1 Para:1.6 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of two storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with a Grade A
Category LD3 fire detection and alarm system, as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.7 Large dwellinghouses

A large dwellinghouse of three or more storeys (excluding basement storeys) should be fitted with
a Grade A Category LD2 fire detection and alarm system as described in BS 5839-6.

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.1 Diagram 2.1 Means of escape from dwelling houses

See paras 2.1 to 2.6
Single storey dwellinghouse(see paragraph 2.1)
Dwellinghouse with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.5)
Dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level(see paragraph 2.6)

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.4 "Diagram 2.4 Fire separation in a dwellinghouse with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.6
Example of alternative exit in para 2.6(a) (see definition in Appendix A)

ADB1 Para:2.5 Diagram 2.5 Ground or basement storey exit into an enclosed space

Where escape from a dwellinghouse is to an enclosed space with exit only possible through other buildings (e.g. a courtyard or back garden), the length of the space should exceed whichever is the greater of the following.
a. The height of the dwellinghouse above ground level (x).
b. Where a rear extension is provided, the height of the extension (y).
See para 2.10

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.14 Flats with upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

The internal arrangement of single storey or multi-storey flats should comply with paragraphs 3.15 to 3.17. Alternatively, the guidance in paragraphs 3.18 to 3.22 may be followed.
A flat accessed via the common parts of the building should also comply with the provisions for small single stair buildings in paragraph 3.28 and Diagram 3.9. A protected entrance hall may be required as a result.

ADB1 Para:3.20 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

A multi-storey flat with an independent external entrance at ground level is similar to a dwellinghouse and means of escape should be planned on the basis of Section 2, depending on the height of the top storey above ground level.

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.28 Small single stair buildings

For some low rise buildings, the provisions in paragraphs 3.26 and 3.27 may be modified and the use of a single stair, protected in accordance with Diagram 3.9, may be permitted where all of the following apply.
a. The top storey of the building is a maximum of 11m above ground level.
b. No more than three storeys are above the ground storey.
c. The stair does not connect to a covered car park, unless the car park is open sided (as defined in Section 11 of Approved Document B Volume 2).
d. The stair does not serve offices, stores or other ancillary accommodation. If it does, they should be separated from the stair by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30) with a minimum 0.4m2 of permanent ventilation, or be protected from the ingress of smoke by a mechanical smoke control system.
NOTE: For refuse chutes and storage see paragraphs 3.55 to 3.58.
e. Either of the following is provided for the fire and rescue service.
i. A high-level openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at each storey.
ii. A single openable vent with a free area of at least 1m2 at the head of the stair, operable remotely at the fire and rescue service access level.

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

ADB1 Para:3.56 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse chutes and rooms for storing refuse should meet both of the following conditions.
a. Be separated from other parts of the building by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30 in buildings with a top storey up to 5m above ground level; otherwise REI 60).
b. Not be situated within a protected stairway or protected lobby.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Diagram 3.6 Multi-storey flat with protected entrance hall and landing

See para 3.21
NOTE: This only applies where at least one storey is more than 4.5m above ground level.
Fire doorset
Fire resisting stair enclosure(minimum REI 30)
Alternative exit

ADB1 Para:3.67 External escape stairs

Where more than one escape route is available from a storey (or part of a building), then some of the escape routes from that storey or part of the building may be by way of an external stair provided all of the following conditions are met:
a. There is a at least one internal escape stair from every part of each storey (excluding plant areas).
b. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above either the ground level or a roof podium which is itself served by an independent protected stairway.
c. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.68.

ADB1 Para:3.71 Basement stairs

If a building does not meet the criteria of paragraph 3.28, an escape stair forming part of the only escape route from an upper storey should not continue down to serve a basement storey. The basement storey should be served by a separate escape stair.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.76 Flats in mixed use buildings

In buildings with a maximum of three storeys above the ground storey, stairs may serve both flats and other occupancies, provided that the stairs are separated from each occupancy by protected lobbies (minimum REI 30) at each storey.

site preparation and resistance to contaminants and moisture 2004 edition incorporating 2010 and 2013 amendments

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

ADB1 Para:3.55 Refuse chutes and storage

Refuse storage chambers, refuse chutes and refuse hoppers should be sited and constructed in accordance with BS 5906.

specialist process lighting

ADB1 Para:3.41 Lighting of common escape routes

All escape routes should have adequate artificial lighting. If the mains electricity power supply fails, escape lighting should illuminate the route (including external escape routes).

ADB1 Para:3.44 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape lighting should conform to BS 5266-1.

specified attachment

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

spiral stair

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

stack effect

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

stair width

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

step-free

ADB1 Para:3.39 Flooring of common escape routes

Escape route floor finishes should minimise their slipperiness when wet. Finishes include the treads of steps and surfaces of ramps and landings.

storey

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.21 Internal planning of multi-storey flats

When multi-storey flats do not have their own external entrance at ground level, adopt one of the following approaches.
a. Approach 1 – provide at least one alternative exit from each habitable room that is not on the entrance storey of the flat (Diagram 3.5 and paragraph 3.22).
b. Approach 2 – provide at least one alternative exit from each storey that is not the entrance storey of the flat. All habitable rooms should have direct access to a protected landing (Diagram 3.6 and paragraph 3.22).
c. Approach 3 – provide a protected stairway plus a sprinkler system in accordance with Appendix E and provide smoke alarms in accordance with BS 5839-6.
d. Approach 4 – if the vertical distance between the entrance storey of the flat and any of the storeys above or below does not exceed 7.5m, provide all of the following.
i. A protected stairway.
ii. Additional smoke alarms in all habitable rooms.
iii. A heat alarm in any kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.5 General provisions Mixed use buildings

In mixed use buildings, separate means of escape should be provided from any storeys or parts of storeys used for the ‘residential’ or ‘assembly and recreation’ purpose groups (purpose groups 1, 2 and 5), other than in the case of certain small buildings or buildings in which the residential accommodation is ancillary (see paragraphs 3.76 and 3.77)

storey exit

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.13 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.16 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (paragraph 2.10).
b. A protected stairway (paragraph 2.5a) leading from the basement to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1b. Where served by only one stair, all habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 2.10.
b. Direct access to a protected stairway, as described in paragraph 2.5a.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.5 Dwellinghouses with one storey more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1c. The dwellinghouse should have either of the following.
a. Protected stairway – a stair separated by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) at all storeys, that complies with one of the following.
i. Extends to a final exit (Diagram 2.2a).
ii. Gives access to a minimum of two ground level final exits that are separated from each other by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and fire doorsets (minimum E 20) (Diagram 2.2b).

Cavity barriers or a fire resisting ceiling (minimum EI 30) should be provided above a protected stairway enclosure (Diagram 2.3).

b. Alternative escape route – a top storey separated from lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) and with an alternative escape route leading to its own final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.6 Dwellinghouses with two or more storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

See Diagram 2.1d. In addition to meeting the provisions in paragraph 2.5, the dwellinghouse should comply with either of the following.
a. Provide an alternative escape route from each storey more than 7.5m above ground level. At the first storey above 7.5m, the protected stairway should be separated from the lower storeys by fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30) if the alternative escape route is accessed via either of the following.
i. The protected stairway to an upper storey.
ii. A landing within the protected stairway enclosure to an alternative escape route on the same storey. The protected stairway at or about 7.5m above ground level should be separated from the lower storeys or levels by fire resisting construction (see Diagram 2.4).
b. Provide a sprinkler system throughout, designed and installed in accordance with BS 9251.

ADB1 Para:3.10 Balconies and flat roofs

Where a flat roof forms part of a means of escape, it should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.16 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door, as described in paragraph 3.6.
b. In multi-storey flats, direct access to a protected internal stairway (minimum REI 30) leading to an exit from the flat.

ADB1 Para:3.22 Alternative exits

Any alternative exit from a flat should comply with all of the following.
a. It should be remote from the main entrance door to the flat.
b. It should lead to a final exit, via a common stair if necessary, through one of the following.
i. A door to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony.
ii. An internal private stair leading to an access corridor, access lobby or common balcony at another level.
iii. A door to a common stair.
iv. A door to an external stair.
v. A door to an escape route over a flat roof.
Any access route leading to a final exit or common stair should comply with the provisions for means of escape in the common parts of a flat (see paragraph 3.25).

ADB1 Para:3.30 Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
a. It should be part of the same building from which escape is being made.
b. The route across the roof should lead to a storey exit or external escape route.
c. The part of the roof (including its supporting structure) forming the escape route, and any opening within 3m of the escape route, should be of fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.30(d Escape routes over flat roofs

Where a storey or part of a building has multiple escape routes available, one may be over a flat roof that complies with all of the following.
d. The route should be clearly defined and guarded by walls and/or protective barriers to protect against falling.

ADB1 Para:3.31 Common escape routes

The following paragraphs deal with means of escape from the entrance doors of flats to a final exit.

ADB1 Para:3.37 Common escape routes

Ancillary accommodation should not be located in, or entered from, a protected lobby or protected corridor forming the only common escape route on that storey.

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.74 Stairs serving ancillary accommodation

Where a common stair is not part of the only escape route from a flat, it may also serve ancillary accommodation from which it is separated by a protected lobby or protected corridor (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

ADB1 Para:3.9 Basements

Basement storeys containing habitable rooms should have one of the following.
a. An emergency escape window or external door providing escape from the basement (see paragraph 3.6).
b. A protected stairway (minimum REI 30) leading from the basement to a final exit.

structure 2004 edition incorporating 20042010 and 2013 amendments

ADB1 Para:3.48 Protected power circuits

Guidance on cables for large and complex buildings is given in BS 5839-1, BS 5266-1 and BS 8519.

suitable tread nosings

ADB1 Para:1.2 General provisions

Smoke alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS EN 14604.

ADB1 Para:1.3 General provisions

Heat alarms should be mains operated and conform to BS 5446-2.

surface water activity

ADB1 Para:3.54 Smoke control of common escape routes by mechanical ventilation

Guidance on the design of smoke control systems that use pressure differentials is available in BS EN 12101-6.

suspended ceiling

ADB1 Para:2.3 "Diagram 2.3 Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level"

See para 2.5
Alternative cavity barrier arrangements in roof space over protected stairway in a house with a storey more than 4.5m above ground level

ADB1 Para:2.7 Diagram 2.7 Fire resistance of areas near to external stairs

Fire resisting window(minimum RE30)
No fire resistance required for door
1100mm zone above top landing
6m max. height without weather protection
1800mm zone of fire resisting construction at side of stairway
Fire doorset(minimum E30)
See para 2.17

tapered tread

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

the management regulations

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

total useful floor area

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.15 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 2.10, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet all the conditions shown in Diagram 2.6.

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:2.6 Diagram 2.6 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 2.15

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:2.9 Air circulation systems

All of the following precautions should be taken to avoid the spread of smoke and fire to the protected stairway.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the stair enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the stair enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and stair enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts supplying or extracting air directly to or from a protected stairway should not serve other areas as well.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.1 Diagram 3.1 Gallery floors with no alternative exit

NOTES:
1. This diagram does not apply where the gallery is provided with one of the following:
i. An alternative escape route
ii. An emergency escape window (where the gallery floor is not more than 4.5m above ground level).
2. Any cooking facilities within a room containing a gallery should comply with one of the following conditions:
i. Be enclosed with fire resisting construction
ii. Be remote from the stair to the gallery and positioned such that they do not prejudice escape from the gallery.
See para 3.13

ADB1 Para:3.13 Galleries

A gallery should comply with one of the following.
a. It should be provided with an alternative exit.
b. It should be provided with an emergency escape window, as described in paragraph 3.6, where the gallery floor is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level.
c. It should meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.23 Air circulation systems in flats with a protected stairway or entrance hall enclosure

For systems circulating air only within an individual flat, take all of the following precautions.
a. Transfer grilles should not be fitted in any wall, door, floor or ceiling of the enclosure.
b. Any duct passing through the enclosure should be rigid steel. Joints between the ductwork and enclosure should be fire-stopped.
c. Ventilation ducts serving the enclosure should not serve any other areas.
d. Any system of mechanical ventilation which recirculates air and which serves both the stair and other areas should be designed to shut down on the detection of smoke within the system.
e. For ducted warm air heating systems, a room thermostat should be sited in the living room. It should be mounted at a height between 1370mm and 1830mm above the floor. The maximum setting should be 27°C.
NOTE: Ventilation ducts passing through compartment walls should comply with the guidance in Section 9.

ADB1 Para:3.29 Flats with balcony or deck access

Paragraph 3.27 may be modified using the guidance in clause 7.3 of BS 9991.

ADB1 Para:3.40 Ramps and sloping floors

A ramp forming part of an escape route should meet the provisions in Approved Document M. Any sloping floor or tier should have a pitch of not more than 35 degrees to the horizontal.

ADB1 Para:3.46 Protected power circuits

To limit potential damage to cables in protected circuits, all of the following should apply.
a. Cables should be sufficiently robust.
b. Cable routes should be carefully selected and/or physically protected in areas where cables may be exposed to damage.
c. Methods of cable support should be class A1 rated and offer at least the same integrity as the cable. They should maintain circuit integrity and hold cables in place when exposed to fire.

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

travel distance

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:2.23 Loft conversions

An alternative approach to that described in paragraph 2.21 would be to comply with all of the following.
a. Provide sprinkler protection to the open-plan areas.
b. Provide a fire resisting partition (minimum REI 30) and door (minimum E 20) to separate the ground storey from the upper storeys. The door should allow occupants of the loft room access to a first storey escape window.
c. Separate cooking facilities from the open-plan area with fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.1 Table 3.1 Limitations on travel distance in common areas of blocks of flats

NOTES:
1. If travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a fire hazard.
2. In the case of a small single stair building in accordance with Diagram 3.9, this is reduced to 4.5m.
3. Does not apply if all flats on a storey have independent alternative means of escape.
4. Sheltered housing may require reduced maximum travel distances.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.18 Flats with storeys more than 4.5m above ground level Internal planning of single storey flats

One of the following approaches should be adopted, observing the inner room restrictions described in paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8.
a. Provide a protected entrance hall (minimum REI 30) serving all habitable rooms that meets the conditions shown in Diagram 3.2.
b. Plan the flat to meet the conditions shown in Diagram 3.3, so that both of the following apply.
i. The travel distance from the flat entrance door to any point in any habitable room is a maximum of 9m.
ii. Cooking facilities are remote from the main entrance door and do not impede the escape route from anywhere in the flat.
c. Provide an alternative exit from the flat complying with paragraph 3.22.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.24 Live/work units

For flats serving as a workplace for both occupants and people who do not live on the premises, provide both of the following.
a. A maximum travel distance of 18m between any part of the working area and either of the following.
i. The flat entrance door.
ii. An alternative means of escape that is not a window.
If the travel distance is over 18m, the assumptions in paragraph 3.2 may not be valid. The design should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Escape lighting to windowless accommodation in accordance with BS 5266-1.

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.27 Number of escape routes

From the flat entrance door, a single escape route is acceptable in either of the following cases.
a. The flat is on a storey served by a single common stair and both of the following apply.
i. Every flat is separated from the common stair by a protected lobby or common protected corridor (see Diagram 3.7).
ii. The maximum travel distance in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded.
b. The flat is in a dead end of a common corridor served by two (or more) common stairs and the maximum travel distance given in Table 3.1, for escape in one direction only, is not exceeded (Diagram 3.8).

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.32 Common escape routes

Escape route travel distances should comply with Table 3.1.

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.7 Diagram 3.7 Flats served by one common stair

See paras 3.27 and 3.36
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. See Diagram 3.9 for small single stair buildings.
3. All doors shown are fire doorsets.
4. Where travel distance is measured to a stair lobby, the lobby must not provide direct access to any storage room, flat or other space containing a potential fire hazard.
5. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
F Flat
Shaded areas indicate zones where ventilation should be provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:3.8 Diagram 3.8 Flats served by more than one common stair

a. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITHOUT DEAD ENDS
b. CORRIDOR ACCESS WITH DEAD ENDS
The central door may be omitted if maximum travel distance is not more than 15m.
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C ,Table C1.
Fire doorset provided in accordance with paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53(An external wall vent or smoke shaft located anywhere in the shaded area)
See paras 3.27 and 3.36

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

ADB1 Para:3.9 Diagram 3.9 Common escape route in small single stair building

a. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING
*If smoke control is provided in the lobby, the travel distance can be increased to 7.5m maximum(see Diagram 3.7, example b).
b. SMALL SINGLE STAIR BUILDING WITH NO MORE THAN TWO FLATS PER STOREY
The door between stair and lobby should be free from security fastenings.
If the flats have protected entrance halls, the lobby between the common stair and flat entrance is not essential.
NOTES:
1. The arrangements shown also apply to the top storey.
2. If the travel distance across the lobby in diagram (a) exceeds 4.5m, Diagram 3.7 applies.
3. Where,in Diagram (b), the lobby between the common stair and the dwelling is omitted in smal lsingle stair buildings, an automatic opening vent with a free area of at least 1m2 is required at the top of the stair,which is operated automatically on detection of smoke at any storey in the stair.
4. For further guidance on the fire rating of the fire doorsets from the corridor to the flat and/or stairway refer to Appendix C, Table C1.
Fire resisting construction
Openable vent at high level for fire service use (1.0m2 minimum free area); see paragraph 3.28eSee para 3.28
Diagram 3.9

unprotected area

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

ADB1 Para:3.64 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

If a protected stairway projects beyond, is recessed from or is in an internal angle of the adjoining external wall of the building, then the minimum distance between an unprotected area of the building enclosure and an unprotected area of the stair enclosure should be 1800mm.

ADB1 Para:3.65 External escape stairs

Flats may be served by an external stair if the provisions in paragraphs 3.66 to 3.69 are followed.

ADB1 Para:3.68 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 3.11).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30) and be fitted with a self-closing device, except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair, provided it is the only door onto the landing.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm above and horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity but not insulation) (minimum E 30).
e. Stairs more than 6m in height above ground level (e.g. where they are provided above a podium) should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.

ADB1 Para:6.3 Additional guidance

If a loadbearing wall is any of the following, guidance in other sections may also apply.
a. A compartment wall (including a wall common to two buildings): Section 7.
b. Enclosing a place of special fire hazard: Section 7.
c. Protecting a means of escape: Sections 2 and 3.
d. An external wall: Sections 10 and 11.
e. Enclosing a firefighting shaft: Section 15.

utility room

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

utility stair

ADB1 Para:2.17 External escape stairs

Any external escape stair should meet all of the following conditions (Diagram 2.7).
a. Doors to the stair should be fire resisting (minimum E 30), except for a single exit door from the building to the top landing of a downward-leading external stair.
b. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) is required for the building envelope within the following zones, measured from the flights and landings of the external stair.
i. 1800mm horizontally.
ii. 9m vertically below.
iii. 1100mm above the top landing of the stair (except where the stair leads from basement to ground level).
c. Fire resisting construction (minimum RE 30) should be provided for any part of the building (including doors) within 1800mm of the escape route from the foot of the stair to a place of safety. This does not apply if there are alternative escape routes from the foot of the external escape stair.
d. Stairs more than 6m in height should be protected from adverse weather. Protection should prevent the build-up of snow or ice but does not require full enclosure.
e. Glazing in areas of fire resisting construction should be fixed shut and fire resisting (in terms of integrity, but not insulation) (minimum E 30).

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.4 Escape from upper storeys more than 4.5m above ground level

Dwellinghouses with one internal stair should comply with paragraphs 2.5 and 2.6. In dwellinghouses with more than one stair, the stairs should provide effective alternative means of escape. The stairs should be physically separated by either of the following.
a. Fire resisting construction (minimum REI 30).
b. More than one room.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.33 Common escape routes

An escape route should not pass through one stair enclosure to reach another. It may pass through a protected lobby (minimum REI 30) of one stair to reach another.

ADB1 Para:3.43 Lighting of common escape routes

Escape stair lighting should be on a separate circuit from the electricity supply to any other part of the escape route.

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.59 Common stairs Number of common stairs

A building should provide access to more than one common stair if it does not meet the criteria for a single common stair (see paragraph 3.26 and 3.27).

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

ADB1 Para:3.60 Width of common stairs

A stair of acceptable width for everyday use will be sufficient for escape purposes. If it is also a firefighting stair, it should be at least 1100mm wide. The width is the clear width between the walls or balustrades. Any handrails and strings intruding into that width by a maximum of 100mm on each side may be ignored.

ADB1 Para:3.61 Protection of common stairs

Section 7 provides guidance on avoiding the spread of fire between storeys. For a stair that is also a firefighting stair, guidance in Section 15 should be followed.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

ADB1 Para:3.66 External escape stairs

Where a storey (or part of a building) is served by a single access stair, that stair may be external provided both of the following conditions are met.
a. The stair serves a floor not more than 6m above the ground level.
b. The stair meets the provisions in paragraph 3.62.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

ADB1 Para:3.72 Basement stairs

Where multiple escape stairs serve the upper storeys, only one needs to end at ground level. Other stairs may connect with the basement storeys if there is a protected lobby or a protected corridor between the stairs and accommodation at each basement level.

vented (open) hot water storage system

ADB1 Para:3.50 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

Except in buildings that comply with Diagram 3.9, the corridor or lobby next to each stair should have a smoke vent. The location of the vent should comply with both of the following.
a. Be as high as practicable.
b. Be positioned so the top edge is at least as high as the top of the door to the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.52 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

A vent to the outside with a minimum free area of 1m2 should be provided from the top storey of the stair.

ADB1 Para:3.53 Smoke control of common escape routes by natural smoke ventilation

In single stair buildings, smoke vents on the storey where the fire is initiated, and the vent at the head of the stair, should be activated by smoke detectors in the common parts.
In buildings with more than one stair, smoke vents may be activated manually. The control system should open the vent at the head of the stair before, or at the same time as, the vent on the storey where the fire is located. Smoke detection is not required for ventilation purposes in this instance.

ventilation

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

ventilation opening

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.57 Refuse chutes and storage

The approach to rooms containing refuse chutes or for storing refuse should comply with one of the following conditions.
a. Be directly from the open air.
b. Be through a protected lobby with a minimum of 0.2m2 of permanent ventilation.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

vomitory exits

ADB1 Para:1.8 Extensions and material alterations

Where new habitable rooms are provided, a fire detection and alarm system should be installed
where either of the following applies.
a. The room is provided above or below the ground storey.
b. The room is provided at the ground storey, without a final exit.

ADB1 Para:2.2 Diagram 2.2 Alternative arrangements for final exits

See para 2.5
Fire resisting construction minimum REI 30
Fd Fire doorset minimum E 20

ADB1 Para:3.45 Exit signs on common escape routes

Every doorway or other exit providing access to a means of escape, other than exits in ordinary use (e.g. main entrances), should be distinctively and conspicuously marked by an exit sign in accordance with BS ISO 3864-1 and BS 5499-4. For this reason, blocks of flats with a single stair in regular use would not usually require any fire exit signage.
Advice on fire safety signs, including emergency escape signs, is given in the HSE publication Safety Signs and Signals: Guidance on Regulations.
Some buildings may require additional signs to comply with other legislation.

ADB1 Para:3.70 Separation of adjoining protected stairways

The construction separating two adjacent protected stairways (or exit passageways leading to different final exits) should be imperforate.

ADB1 Para:3.81 Exits from protected stairways

Every protected stairway should lead to a final exit, either directly or via a protected exit passageway. Any protected exit corridor or stair should have the same standard of fire resistance and lobby protection as the stair it serves.

wall

ADB1 Para:3.63 External walls adjacent to protected stairways

With some configurations of external wall, a fire in one part of a building could subject the external wall of a protected stairway to heat (for example, where the two are adjacent at an internal angle in the façade, as shown in Diagram 3.10).

wet room

ADB1 Para:2.11 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 2.10.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 2.15.

ADB1 Para:2.12 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 2.11.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.42 Lighting of common escape routes

In addition, escape lighting should be provided to all of the following.
a. Toilet accommodation with a minimum floor area of 8m2.
b. Electricity and generator rooms.
c. Switch room/battery room for emergency lighting system.
d. Emergency control rooms.

ADB1 Para:3.7 Inner rooms

An inner room is permitted when it is one of the following.
a. A kitchen.
b. A laundry or utility room.
c. A dressing room.
d. A bathroom, WC or shower room.
e. Any room on a storey that is a maximum of 4.5m above ground level which is provided with an emergency escape window as described in paragraph 3.6.
f. A gallery that complies with paragraph 3.13.

ADB1 Para:3.8 Inner rooms

A room accessed only via an inner room (an inner inner room) is acceptable when all of the following apply.
a. It complies with paragraph 3.7.
b. The access rooms each have a smoke alarm (see Section 1).
c. None of the access rooms is a kitchen.

wheelchair accessible

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

wheelchair adaptable

ADB1 Para:1.1 General provisions

All dwellings should have a fire detection and alarm system, minimum Grade D2 Category LD3
standard, in accordance with the relevant recommendations of BS 5839-6.
A higher standard of protection should be considered where occupants of a proposed dwelling
would be at special risk from fire. Further advice on this is also given in BS 5839-6.

whole building ventilation

ADB1 Para:3.49 Smoke control in common escape routes

Despite the provisions described, it is probable that some smoke will get into the common corridor or lobby from a fire in a flat.
There should therefore be some means of ventilating the common corridors/lobbies to control smoke and so protect the common stairs. This means of ventilation offers additional protection to that provided by the fire doors to the stair, as well as some protection to the corridors/lobbies.
Ventilation can be natural (paragraphs 3.50 to 3.53) or mechanical (paragraph 3.54).

window

ADB1 Para:2.1 Escape from the ground storey

See Diagram 2.1a. All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.10 General provisions Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire. Courtyards or inaccessible back gardens should comply with Diagram 2.5.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

ADB1 Para:2.19 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

Where an existing window would be an escape window in a new dwellinghouse, and is big enough to be used for escape purposes, then the replacement should comply with one of the following.
a. The replacement window should be sized to provide at least the same potential for escape.
b. If the existing window was larger than required for escape purposes, the opening can be reduced to the minimum described in paragraph 2.10.

ADB1 Para:2.20 Work on existing dwellinghouses Replacement windows

If windows are replaced, it may be necessary to provide cavity barriers around the opening in accordance with Section 5.

ADB1 Para:2.3 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single window. A door between the rooms should provide access to the window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.15 Escape from the ground storey

All habitable rooms (excluding kitchens) should have either of the following.
a. An opening directly onto a hall leading to a final exit.
b. An emergency escape window or door, as described in paragraph 3.6.

ADB1 Para:3.17 Escape from upper storeys a maximum of 4.5m above ground level

Two rooms may be served by a single escape window. A door between rooms should provide access to the escape window without passing through the stair enclosure. Both rooms should have their own access to the internal stair.

ADB1 Para:3.58 Refuse chutes and storage

Access openings to refuse storage chambers should not be sited in the following areas.
a. Next to escape routes or final exits.
b. Near the windows of flats.

ADB1 Para:3.6 Emergency escape windows and external doors

Windows or external doors providing emergency escape should comply with all of the following.
a. Windows should have an unobstructed openable area that complies with all of the following.
i. A minimum area of 0.33m2.
ii. A minimum height of 450mm and a minimum width of 450mm (the route through the window may be at an angle rather than straight through).
iii. The bottom of the openable area is a maximum of 1100mm above the floor.
b. People escaping should be able to reach a place free from danger from fire.
c. Locks (with or without removable keys) and opening stays (with child-resistant release catches) may be fitted to escape windows.
d. Windows should be capable of remaining open without being held.

workplace regulations

ADB1 Para:3.80 Gas service and installation pipes in protected stairways

Gas service and installation pipes and meters should not be within a protected stairway, unless installed in accordance with the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996 and the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998.

This list was generated on Sat Feb 27 02:48:32 2021 UTC.